Thursday, 19 April 2018

FOR SALE - Three Gallic warbands

THESE UNITS HAVE BEEN SOLD

Once every so often, I put something up for sale. This time I'm putting up three Gallic warbands, each of twenty two painted and based 28mm figures by Renegade. 

All were painted in enamels, and based, by yours truly for my own collection - these are not the runts of the litter; each base was picked at random and I'd be happy to swap any of them with the sixty bases that I'm keeping.




Warband  lot 1






Warband lot 2


 

Warband lot 3

 

 

SOLD


Wednesday, 18 April 2018

The Battle of Liegnitz 1760

Introduction

Firstly, I'd like to thank all those people who have kindly helped me to understand this battle by emailing me, or posting via various groups, maps, information and narratives from sources I don't have. 



I'm not exactly sure why I had such difficulty with the narratives, and matching them to the maps. And I still don't understand the line in the Kronoskaf narrative - "These columns were not expecting a Prussian attack. The column which was supposed to move through Panten halted in the village and occupied it without trying to advance farther." - as, on the maps, no columns other than the reserve, which led the attack beyond Panten, appear to be going there. However, that aside, I'm fairly sure I now have a solid handle on it and can't quite understand what my problem was in the first place. 

The map which helped most, and which I had without realising it, is in Die Schlachten Friedrichs des Grossen by Gunter Dorn & Joachim Engelmann  (it appears on p.133, prior to the chapter on Liegnitz and next to a map of Maxen). This map shows the lines of march prior to the encounter. The map in Refighting History Vol. 4 by Charles S. Grant, which I don't have, helped very much in deciding the table orientation for the following set up. Overall, I think the best narrative (I have) is in The Wars of Frederick the Great by Dennis E. Showalter.

I have devised the following historical scenario (based on the Battle of Liegnitz 1760) for use with The Ilkley Lads home grown version of Piquet for large 18th Century battles, a supplement we call Men Are Like Lemons (To be squeezed).


The battlefield looking west. 

In the distance the Prussians under the personal command of Frederick II stand in a crescent on the plateau overlooking Panten. In the foreground, the tail of the 'first' line marches through Bienowitz. Beyond the stream (a tributary of the Katzbach River off table to the left) the Austrian reserve (left) and vanguard cavalry (right) are about to deliver the first attacks. In this picture (extreme right) the head of the 'second' line can be seen heading towards the northern [stone] bridge.
Background to the battle

For those unfamiliar with The Battle of Liegnitz it came about during the Austrian and Russian invasion of Silesia in 1760. Here Frederick the Great of Prussia found his army of 30,000 men outnumbered 3 : 1 by the Austrians. During the campaign the Austrians, ostensibly under the command of Field Marshal Daun, formulated a plan to crush the Prussians by delivering simultaneous attacks from multiple directions, as they had at Hockirch in 1758, with the further refinement of placing a capable blocking force, under the command of Field Marshal Loudon, across Prussian line of retreat. Frederick's army would be hit by hammer blows of overwhelming strength, then crushed against an anvil. 

Then, on the night of August 14th - 15th, when the Austrians were about to deliver their attacks, Frederick fortuitously decided to steal a march and escape his enemy. To confuse his enemies he left detachments to maintain the fires in the old camp; in the morning, the hammer blows delivered by Daun would fall on thin air. 


Austrians of the 'first' line (foreground) marching on the outskirts of Bienowitz to the sound of the guns. In the distance, the 'second' line can be seen on the more northerly road.
During his night march a further stroke of good luck befell Frederick. A deserting Irish officer in Austrian service drunkenly stumbled into the Prussian lines and, after being forcibly sobered up, detailed all of the Austrian plan. Frederick halted his 30,000 strong army on the low plateau above the Katzback River. Fearing he would be caught between Daun and Loudon he deployed in two wings, facing in two directions, to counter whichever attack came first. As it was, it was the anvil force of 24,000 men under Loudon, moving into its blocking position, which accidentally triggered the Prussian hussar pickets, at 2.30 a.m.; the hussars immediately retreated and reported. Frederick, still maintaining two wings, ordered some small adjustments to his dispositions. To delay the Austrian advance until this redeployment was safely accomplished he sent forward some of his heavy cavalry.


Prussian units, in the wing commanded by Frederick II, in their starting positions on the plateau.  The plateau is quite a feature: it covers an area roughly four feet wide by five feet deep; it is two contours (2") high - this is where using a cloth, rather than terrain boards, generally proves its worth. see this link to see what the hills are made of.The plateau is not a hindrance to movement in any direction; it provides a superior position to artillery shooting down slope.
Loudon's force was marching in three parallel columns, moving in a roughly northerly direction. Loudon had no idea that the Prussians were close by and he was moving at speed, and without scouting ahead. 


Prussian Brummers stand ready to receive the Austrians. Heavy guns were generally nobody's child when things went badly; at Liegnitz, Frederick put a battery of ten heavy guns under the command of each brigade for mutual support - it proved to be a master stroke.
It was the Austrian cavalry vanguard which blundered into the main Prussian position and gave Loudon the first insight into his predicament. When the shock of contact occurred Loudon reacted with his usual sagacity. With the Katzbach blocking his line of retreat south, withdrawal in the face of the enemy was not an option. With overall numbers roughly equal - unknowingly, with half of the Prussians facing a possible attack from Daun he actually had a local superiority of about 3:2 - he decided to attack and hold Frederick in place until Daun arrived. He gave his orders accordingly. As his van engaged, he planted some artillery and organised his reserve division of grenadiers and elite squadrons around Panten for an assault on the plateau. Thus began the Battle of Liegnitz on 15th August 1760.


Loudon has planted his artillery to support the attack of his reserve. Note that all five of these infantry units should be grenadiers but I only have three units - I will upgrade the line infantry to have similar stats by making them 'eager'. In the distance the Prussian heavy cavalry are deployed to delay the oncoming Austrian cavalry of the van. 

The woods behind the cavalry (on and beyond the north edge of the table) were extensive and forced the Austrians to attack on a very narrow front - I will class them as type III [difficult] terrain for movement and type II [light] cover. 

Scenario notes

Deciding how to set this battle up poses something of a problem. Starting with the first cavalry encounter at the crack of dawn and just before the arrival of the Austrian infantry at Panten, would be a fair place to start. However, purely for gaming reasons I'm going to discount this option because too much valuable gaming time would be spent fighting a small cavalry action whilst the Austrians and Prussians pointlessly manoeuvre into positions they have little choice over anyway. And furthermore, it might lead, in a multi-player game, to a lot of thumb twiddling. Far better, I think, to start the action with a slight fudge on the timing of the initial contact between the Austrian vanguard and Prussian heavy cavalry, and the attack by Loudon's grenadiers. As these two actions are separated by some distance they can probably happen simultaneously without distorting the initial narrative to any great extent. After that, as in all war games, the luck of the dice will tell and the war game's narrative will go its own way. 


This shot shows the columns of the 'first' and 'second' lines marching west from from the direction of Bienowitz. They have not (as I first thought) marched from the east - they have crossed the Katzbach south of Bienowitz before turning west.

This shot shows the southerly flowing tributary of the Katzbach River quite nicely; it is type III terrain except at the 'rocky pools' just south of the stone bridge - these are not passable. The boggy ground running from Pantern to Bienowitz mark the sodden water meadows of the Katzbach River (which runs just south of the table) - these are not passable.
My action will start at first light (approximately 4.30 a.m.). My set up will have the Austrian vanguard cavalry running into contact with the advancing Prussian heavy cavalry, and Loudon's reserve will begin the battle organised to deliver its attack against the Prussians on the heights from the direction of Panten. The Austrian 'first' and 'second' lines will start the game marching to the sound of the guns from the direction of Bienowitz. The final Prussian reserves will start getting into their final positions. 

This then, as the accompanying photographs show, will be the initial set up.


Two regiments of Prussian fusiliers marching from the opposite wing to bolster Frederick's reserve infantry - one of the last minute adjustments made by Frederick to the Prussian deployment. 

Note that the windmill is the game objective: To hold it a player must have the nearest unit to the marker placed under its base. 

The windmill is only a scenic item. If necessary, it can be moved but the marker under it may not.
The next thing to consider are the victory conditions. 

Historically, Loudon was probably trying to buy time for Daun to come up and finish Frederick off with a classic pincer movement but, on hearing reports that Loudon had been unable to dislodge Frederick, Daun decided not to attack and withdrew to his start positions. 

Loudon believed that Daun had betrayed him. Loudon believed Daun had refused to attack as soon as he knew of Loudon's predicament because he was jealous of his rising fame and saw his chance to see off his rival. For the purpose of this scenario, the betrayal angle works for me. Without the possibility of Daun's arrival this game becomes a one on one fight and victory conditions become far easier to set - Daun will not arrive unless Loudon has already won, when he will move in to share the spoils.

Therefore, the loser will be the first side, not holding the windmill, to throw in the towel whilst at zero morale points. At that point the side holding the windmill will be able to claim a victory and only the level of the winners victory needs to ascertained.

The battle saw several counterattacks by the Prussians and giving further defined objectives might encourage the Prussians to do more than simply sit on their hill.

  • If the winner holds Bienowitz, Panten and the windmill it is a crushing tactical victory.
  • If the winner holds Bienowitz or Panten and the windmill it is a major tactical victory.
  • If the winner holds the windmill it is minor tactical victory.

If the winner has less than 50% of his starting unit count (Prussian 24, Austrian 32) still in action at the end of the battle the tactical victory, of whatever level, is pyrrhic and the result is a strategic draw. Note that winning the tactical battle is still the important thing!




Order of battle

The order of battle given below is given in wargame units. As a rule of thumb, an infantry unit represents two infantry battalions, a cavalry unit represents five squadrons and a battery of artillery represents about ten pieces. 

I have used the order of battle given by Kronoskaf as the basis for the OOB in conjunction with the German General Staff map and Duffy's map in The Army of Frederick the Great

Because the elite companies that formed the converged battalions and squadrons of reserve were from their parent units in Loudon's force, I have reduced the number of units in the 'first' and 'second' lines by three units. 

Although I have enough line infantry to do Liegnitz (with four units left over) I didn't have all of the right infantry to do this battle. I was three units of grenadiers and a unit of Hungarians short. These have been replaced with Austrian line infantry stand ins, suitably upgraded where required - they are listed in the OOB as what they should be.

I have had to make a guess about the cavalry brigade that formed the Austrian van. I have made it the lead cavalry of the 'first' line. 

I have omitted the Austrian light troops under Nauendorf because I have no evidence of their participation in the battle.



Beyond training and weaponry, units in Piquet games are given a quality rating. As a rule of thumb, ready troops are average and use basic factors; battle weary troops are downgraded for combat; eager troops are upgraded for combat; determined troops are double up graded for combat.  

The Prussian infantry of the first line had seen relatively little action since 1758 whereas the reserve infantry had all been badly knocked about, especially at Kunnersdorf in August 1759. To differentiate, I have decided to make the Prussian first line troops eager and the reserve ready.



Austrian

Commander in chief: Field-marshal Earnst Gideon baron Loudon - rated as skilled.

Army morale: 35 points. 
Extra cards: Brilliant Leader (for Loudon); Infantry Morale Up 1; Stratagem - Heroic Commander *.

2 units of field artillery - ready (both with the reserve)
2 units of heavy artillery - ready (one with each 'line')

Reserve: Field-Marshal-Lieutenant baron Müffling - rated as average, heroic commander.
  • 5 units of grenadiers - ready
Cavalry of the Reserve: Unknown - rated as average.
  • 1 unit of elite squadrons - eager (inc. carabiniers)
  • 1 unit of elite squadrons - ready
Vanguard cavalry of the first line: Unknown - rated as average.

  • 1 unit of cuirassier - ready
  • 2 units of dragoons - eager
Infantry of the first line: Unknown - rated as poor.
  • 1 unit of grenadiers - ready
  • 2 unit Hungarians - ready
  • 2 units of Austrian line infantry - ready
  • 1 unit of Austrian line infantry - eager
  • 1 unit of Austrian line infantry - battle weary
Rearward cavalry of the first line: Unknown - rated as average.
  • 1 unit of cuirassier - eager
  • 1 units of dragoons - ready
Vanguard cavalry of the second line - Unknown - rated as poor.
  • 1 unit of cuirassier - ready
  • 1 units of dragoons - ready
Infantry of the second line: Unknown - rated as average.
  • 2 unit Hungarians - ready
  • 2 units of Austrian line infantry - ready
  • 2 units of Austrian line infantry - battle weary
Rearward cavalry of the second line - Unknown - rated as average.
  • 1 unit of cuirassier - ready
* The heroic commander stratagem card is a Brilliant Leader sequence card, that can be used three times in the game, for the grenadiers of the reserve.


Prussian

Commander-in-chief: King Frederick II - rated as superior

Army Morale: 30 points. 
Extra cards: Brilliant Leader x2 (for Frederick); Musket Reload; Cavalry Morale Up 1; Heroic Moment.

First line infantry on the left: Major-general von Anhalt-Bernburg - rated as average.
  • 1 unit of musketeers - eager
  • 1 unit of musketeers - determined (this is IR 3)
  • 1 battery of heavy guns - ready
First line infantry in the centre: Major-general von Schenkendorf's - rated as skilled.
  • 1 unit of grenadiers - eager
  • 2 units of musketeers - eager
  • 1 battery of heavy guns - eager (upgraded for Brummers)
First line infantry on the right: Zeuner - rated as average.
  • 1 unit of guard - average (downgraded for only one battalion)
  • 2 units of musketeers - eager
  • 1 battery of heavy guns - average 
Reserve infantry: Stetchow - rated as average.
  • 1 unit of grenadiers - ready
  • 1 unit of musketeers - ready
  • 2 units of fusiliers - ready
  • 1 battery of field howitzers - eager (upgraded for Saldern's 10 thaler reward *).
Cavalry on the right: Meineck - rated as average.
  • 2 units of dragoons - ready
Cavalry on the left: Holstein - rated as skilled.
  • 3 units of cuirassier - eager
  • 1 unit of cuirassier - ready
Cavalry on the extreme left: Krokow - rated as average.
  • 1 unit of dragoons - ready
  • 2 units of hussars - eager
* Saldern offered a 10 thaler reward for the first gun crew that could silence an Austrian battery, sited in front of Panten, that was making a particular nuisance of itself - a howitzer scored a lucky hit on the battery's ammunition wagon and the battery was duly silenced.

Battle Casualties (from Kronoskaf) : The losses according to Gaudi amounted to 6,000 men killed and wounded and 4,000 taken prisoners, along with 82 guns and 28 flags for the Austrian, and to 3264 killed and wounded and 342 taken prisoners, along with 10 flags for the Prussians. Tempelhof gives 1800 for the Prussian Killed and wounded. The Austrian relation recognizes 3791 killed and wounded, 2140 prisoniers, 68 guns and claims 10 guns and 6 flag taken. According to Duffy sources: Austrian 3767 killed and wounded, 4731 prisoniers and missing, Prussian 3172 killed and wounded, 250 missing and prisoniers, 10 colours and 1 standard.



That, in a nutshell is the set up for my Battle of Liegnitz 1760 scenario. For those wanting to read how the battle went historically I can't point you to better place than the Kronoskaf Seven Years War Project site. 

For one reason, or another, there has been no game here for two weeks. Hopefully, the Lads will be around next week to start fighting this battle out. If you think I've got something completely wrong with this scenario, please don't hesitate to let me know - there may be time to change it.

Tuesday, 10 April 2018

Going With The Flow: Part 2

The last post under my modelling label dealt with the actual construction of river sections. A couple of off list email have prompted this additional post. 

Apparently, a brief description of how the sections were painted was not sufficient so to save further queries here, with my narrower 100 mm wide river sections, is a blow by blow. 

These sections were constructed in exactly the same way as described in Part 1 so, lets not dwell on construction.

So early in the construction process the backs of each section were undercoated with emulsion paint left over from household decorating. 

I'm not sure this is necessary but I do it anyway. The colour is probably unimportant. 
Next, after construction is finished, I undercoat the upper side, again with left over household emulsion paint. 

This is probably a good idea as it saves the next colours, the ones you want, from soaking into unprimed wood and card.

The first proper colour I painted on was the dark brown shade on the banks. I used Dulux Golden Bark 1. 

Being the first colour you can be a bit messy with this one.


When dry (and if you are doing lots, this is a follow on job) I did the first dry brush using a 1:1 mix of Dulux Golden Bark 1 and Wholemeal Honey 2.


To give more depth, I then did a second highlight, in patches, of the same colours mixed 1:2. 
Next up was the water. 

These two sections show three applications of paint. The first shows the base colour (Dulux Royal Regatta 1, Indian Ivy 1 and Night Jewels 1 mixed 1:1:1) followed by a highlight of the same mix with Dulux Azure Fusion 2 (1:1) in a rough dry brush. 

The second section shows an extra highlight of neat Dulux Azure Fusion 2 for more depth of colour.

Note that this dry brushing was applied with an old, rather splayed 1" brush where the bristles had 'splayed' gaps between them.

Note that the dry brush follows the direction of 'river flow'; dry brushing in any other direction never looks right.


Apart from this ford section, the only other colour that was needed was for the banks. The colour used on the banks was Dulux Indian Ivy 1.

To delineate the shallower water of the ford I used a mix of Dulux Azure Fusion 2 and white emulsion. Again I did this with a lateral, with the flow, brush stroke and kept the pattern 'jagged'
Once all the colours are on, and before varnishing, I looked over the banks and corrected any 'over-spills' with a small brush to give good clear edges.

When completely dry I added a coat of Yacht varnish mixed with a couple of thimbles full of wood stain (two teaspoons to half a cup of varnish -ish). This darkened the tones and softened everything nicely.

I left this to dry overnight.
The next morning the banks were coated in PVA glue and dipped into a tub of flock. 

Obviously everyone's choice of flock will be different. My table is quite bright so I chose this light mottled green mix. It's Javis flock: Light Meadow Green and Spring Mix at 1:1. 

Note: Good quality household brushes are well worth the money for this kind of job. This one, by Harris I think, has man-made fibre bristles; I've been using it for years and it has unbelievably, and totally retained its shape.


All of the sections laid out to dry, on a flat surface, in my nice warm and dry wargaming room. 

I'll leave them here for three or four days. They are already pretty warp-less and flat but, once completely dry, they should be completely flat. 

Here there are:

12 x 12" sections
7 x 6" sections
1 x 6" ford section
3 x 4" sections
4 x 3" section
7 x 22.5 degree turns (should have been 8 but I bodged one).
3 x 30 degree turns
4 x 45 degree turns
4 x 15 degree turns
2 x 180 mm to 100 mm forks
1 x 180 mm to 100 mm T junction
1 x 100 mm to 100 mm T junction
2 x 100 mm to 50 mm T junction

That's about 25'.

It's a good idea to keep a note of any paint mixes you make in some kind of diary - that way when you want to repeat something you can. 

Here, two new sections have an old section between them. Not a bad join, IMHO.
I decided, at the start of my river project, to make things integrated. Here are some intersections that should help in this. I'm pretty sure I have not thought of and made everything, including 'narrows' which I thought of last night and might add later.

The two forks, going from a 180 mm wide section into two 100 mm wide sections, were made so I can do 'river island' games so often seen in scenario books. I decided to do them 180 mm - 100 mm wide so that I didn't need to make another six feet of 100 mm wide sections just for this purpose - you have to stop somewhere. Plus, for most river islands it seems wide rivers running into two narrower ones is the natural run of things (?).

The other junctions are for tributaries and will be added to the two 180 mm wide rivers with 50 mm wide T junctions I made last time. I'm not sure how often these will ever get used but if they are needed I will have them.

A painting tip. Do not throw away your old small paint pots. Wash them out so that they can be used as 'big mix' pots that, once a batch of paint is mixed, you can store for later use. Tins are much better than jars for this - mainly because you can prize the lids off with a screwdriver if they get 'glued' up with paint. Also, it's probably a good idea to paint the top of the lid with the colour you have inside.


My favourite 100 mm wide section is this one (shown here before flocking). The varnish has dulled down the 'shallow water' of the ford very nicely and a bit of white foam has brought the stepping stones (a feature of many European fords) into life. 

As with the other sections, there is nothing too clever here; everything has been kept very simple and tidy. The stones are 2.5 mm thick balsa wood sheet cut into irregular shaped blocks.

The road has been textured using heavy body artist's acrylic paint from a tube (Emerald green, I had lying around, in this case) then painted with the same emulsion as the earth banks. I can't recommend artist's acrylic paint enough for texturing things: It sticks like the proverbial; you can apply it with a brush that doesn't 'bung' up like brushes do with plaster; it never flakes off; it is easy to work and over paint.

Next up I will have to make three fixed bridges and a further section with pontoon ramps. They will all be 6" wide, adding another 2' to the total. I may well do a post on this - Part 3 - what do you think?




Thursday, 5 April 2018

"Your Majesty, the Oder belongs to the Russians!" Part 2

We finished the first session's play with the Prussians crossing their newly constructed pontoon bridge and pressing an attack to dislodge Russian troops occupying the hamlet between the two Prussian objectives (the northern and southern towns). 

At the start of the second gaming session I informed the players that night would fall at the end of the session and if neither side had achieved his objective the game would be drawn. Mostly because I needed to clear everything away to make table space to produce the next batch of river this weekend - twenty odd feet of medium span (four inches wide of water) river.

In the first turn the Prussians managed to get their troops across the river with some alacrity and, following a brief firefight, pushed the Russians into the hamlet.
The Prussians storm the position and finally secure their bridgehead in the centre of the battlefield. 

They must now decide which town to attack.
Sending a small force south to hold against a counter attack from that direction, the Prussians decide to attack the town (at the top of the photograph) to the north. 

At this point, Peter was trying to conceal his intentions from the Russians but, as the southern town was held in much more strength, the town to the north was always the obvious target. 

Graham looked doomed.

Now was the point that Graham decided that his only chance of victory was to try and take one of the Prussian hamlets on the Prussian baseline - if you remember, this would bring shame on the Prussian commander and end his career - with a daring blitzkrieg attack. 

The Prussians retained a strong previously uncommitted holding force across the river in the south so a Russian attack here was impracticable. 

Graham made the wager. He depleted his defending force at the northern town, with the Prussians massing in some considerable force just to the south, and attacked across the river!


A race now developed between the two sides. 

Shielding a strong force of infantry from possible interference from the south the Prussians marched towards the northern town as fast as they could go. 

However, the Russians were winning most of the initiative points and their daring northern attack was gathering momentum.


At first it looked like the Prussians were going to stop the attack in it's tracks. They won just enough of the initiative to march down into the valley and gave the Russian hussars considerable grief with several well directed volleys. 

Then the initiative swung again and, just as Russian infantry support  (in the shape of grenadiers) began crossing the bridge, a bunch of pesky Cossacks somehow (sequence cards falling in exactly the right order in close succession) got behind the Prussian infantry. First they discomforted the Prussians with some very lucky carbine fire, then charged them in the rear (under our rules it's difficult for Cossacks to charge anything so even getting to contact was a feat in itself). 

The Prussians were routed in short order and the gleeful Cossacks set off in pursuit.

This was a real turn up for the books and put the Prussian plan into chaos. 

On reaching the west bank of the Oder the bewildered Prussians tried to surrender. We had to look away at this point.
Because meanwhile, in the south, the Prussians began to advance towards the town there too. 

For the life of me I can't understand why Peter decided to spend his initiative points here, unless he was hedging his bets in case things didn't go well in the north. 

Or, perhaps it was the 'Cossack thing'.

I guess I'll never know....

Back in the north, the only remaining Prussian infantry unit west of the river now found itself isolated and pinned down by Russian hussars. They were thus unable to respond to the forced march of the Russian grenadiers to the Prussian hamlet, which they duly occupied. 

Just down the road, the Prussians had forced entry into the outskirts of the town and, following a brief exchange of fire, the last defending Russian infantry unit took to its heals. 

Shortly after this, the penultimate turn of the game (it was about 10.30 pm.) ended. 

If the Russian could hold their towns and the hamlet until the end of the next turn they could claim a major victory. If the Prussians could evict the last Russian unit (artillery) from the northern town (incidentally cutting off the Russians on the west side of the river) they would win.



Attention now switched entirely to the northern sector and the Russians immediately won a massive chunk of initiative and began cycling through their sequence deck - going for an early turn finish. One more run like that and..........

It was not to be. The Prussians won the next batches of initiative and their grenadiers moved through the town as fast as their little hairy legs would carry them and then they threw themselves at the artillery redoubt on the first melee resolution card that came up (they actually used a Heroic Moment card to initiate the melee). It was over in seconds. The Prussians had the town and were holding it in force. A Prussian victory for Peter.

Best game of the year for me (umpire) with a very exciting ending.